Main findings

The project is being carried out in two phases, the first of which is an in-depth study of multimodality conducted by Zeppelin University and has been delivered in June 2014. The second phase of the project will involve the development and implementation of a series of Proofs of Concept in terms of business models, operations and specific technologies that have been identified as critical for market delivery.


In-depth study of multimodality conducted by Zeppelin University. Completed in June 2014. 


Recommendations to the European Commission:

  • Increase support for industry initiatives, while in parallel establish a credible regulatory alternative should the market fail to deliver desired results.
  • Ensure that access to schedule, fares and availability information is available to all players in the market for multimodal travelling on a non-discriminatory basis, based on agreements that govern access to and use of information that can be deemed sensitive.
  • Any regulatory intervention must distinguish between carriers subject to free competition and public transport operators working under public service contracts (PSO). Carriers in free competition should under normal circumstances e.g. not be subject to mandatory third party retailing.
  • There should be no EC regulation regarding a specific technological solution for nondiscriminatory information provision. 
  • Passenger rights and conditions of carriage have to be defined for multimodal trips.
  • Clear interfaces have to be defined and a regulatory framework has to be set to stimulate local public transport operators’ participation in MMITS* without disadvantages.
  • The competitive behaviour of transport operators participating in and/or controlling a MMITS has to be supervised strictly, and the introduction of a “code of conduct “ should be considered.

Key drivers:

  • Deregulation (open access) of the EU rail sector
  • Travel information (transport data) must be accessible on a non-discriminatory basis to MMITS* providers, possibly through EU regulation
  • Industry collaboration to establish a necessary framework for interoperability and/or compatibility of information exchange – including EU support
  • Clarification of passenger rights and conditions of carriage for intermodal journeys
  • Improvement of the physical connectivity and infrastructure to facilitate connections and transfers between transport modes, to create «multi-modal Fast-Tracks» across Europe

MMITS will help achieve EU ambitions:

  • Enhances visibility of public transport and rail options

  • Identifies more efficient journey options

  • Provides unbiased comparison of options and attributes

  • Gives «one-click search, one-click pay, and one-click issuance of trip entitlements» for multi- and intermodal journeys

  • Stimulates modal shift from cars for medium and long distance trips (that normally use several modes of transport) 


  • Market forces will ensure proliferation of MMITS providers, if key fundamentals are in place

  • Technology is a challenge, but not a major barrier

The detailed report and executive summary of Phase 1 can be found under "Documents".

Three pillars of MMITS (Multimodal Information and Ticketing Systems)